Does the Raspberry pi work with NFC and specifically communicating with an Android phone? Are there any NFC cards that are better / worse than others for working on the pi?
When the RPi can talk NFC, it should be able to talk to any NFC equipped Android Phone (or NFC equipped device in general). I personally did not play with that combination, but I found a tutorial on this subject. It uses a RPi and a 13.56 Mhz shield for the NFC/RFID communication. The only thing that worries me in the text is that an Arduino suddenly pops up, I guess that is not the idea to also add an Arduino.
I found a second source of information from Ada Fruits, they have a ready to use piece of hardware and they also have a library to communicate with the hardware, this might be a fast solution to start using NFC/RFID. In the text I only see that they use of for reading mifare cards, so plain RFID, but making this talk to an Android device is just a matter of a (little) programming.