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Will I damage a GPIO (set to input) if introduced to 10V 1mA? I read somewhere that the GPIO ports can tolerate maximum of 16mA

I need to detect on/off ( 10V/0V ). Could I possibly use voltage divider?

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up vote 5 down vote accepted

The 1mA is not a problem, but the 10V is a problem. Like you suggested correctly yourself, a simple voltage divider using a couple of resistors will do the job.

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If you make R1 1k and R2 470 Ohm, you should get a nice 3.2v on the output with an input of 10v. If the 1mA is a hard constraint, multiply all resistor values by 10, because using the given resistor values this divider will dissipate 6.8mA on the 10V side.

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