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I am trying to debug a Raspberry Pi 3B (rev 1.2) bare metal application using JTAG. I have no JTAG adapter so I am using another Raspberry Pi (3B rev 1.2) as JTAG adapter. I am using OpenOCD and it looks like it's working. I can access all cores but it randomly reports DAP errors.

Connections are simple wires.

enter image description here

For example when I run

openocd -f rpi_swd.cfg -c "bindto 0.0.0.0" -f rpi_target.cfg

it prints

    Open On-Chip Debugger 0.10.0+dev-00920-g6ea43726 (2019-07-06-16:29)
Licensed under GNU GPL v2
For bug reports, read
    http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
trst_and_srst separate srst_gates_jtag trst_push_pull srst_push_pull connect_deassert_srst

Info : Listening on port 6666 for tcl connections
Info : Listening on port 4444 for telnet connections
Info : BCM2835 GPIO JTAG/SWD bitbang driver
Info : JTAG and SWD modes enabled
Info : clock speed 1001 kHz
Info : JTAG tap: rpi3.tap tap/device found: 0x4ba00477 (mfg: 0x23b (ARM Ltd.), part: 0xba00, ver: 0x4)
Info : rpi3.a53.0: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 4 watchpoints
Info : rpi3.a53.1: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 4 watchpoints
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Info : rpi3.a53.2: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 4 watchpoints
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Info : rpi3.a53.3: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 4 watchpoints
Error: Invalid ACK (6) in DAP response
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Error: JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR
Info : rpi3.a53.0 cluster 0 core 0 multi core
Info : Listening on port 3333 for gdb connections
Info : Listening on port 3334 for gdb connections
Info : Listening on port 3335 for gdb connections
Info : Listening on port 3336 for gdb connections

It looks that it is working. I have tried that I can succesffully halt each core, place breakpoints continues execution and view variables content. But it randomly prints DAP errror and some JTAG-DP STICKY ERROR and sometimes debuging crash.

File rpi_swd.cfg has modified pin numbers and allowed jtag and the content is:

#
# Config for using Raspberry Pi's expansion header
#
# This is best used with a fast enough buffer but also
# is suitable for direct connection if the target voltage
# matches RPi's 3.3V and the cable is short enough.
#
# Do not forget the GND connection, pin 6 of the expansion header.
#

interface bcm2835gpio

bcm2835gpio_peripheral_base 0x3F000000

# Transition delay calculation: SPEED_COEFF/khz - SPEED_OFFSET
# These depend on system clock, calibrated for stock 700MHz
# bcm2835gpio_speed SPEED_COEFF SPEED_OFFSET
bcm2835gpio_speed_coeffs 146203 36

# Each of the JTAG lines need a gpio number set: tck tms tdi tdo
# Header pin numbers: 23 22 19 21
bcm2835gpio_jtag_nums 25 24 23 22 
# or if you have both connected,
# reset_config trst_and_srst srst_push_pull

# Each of the SWD lines need a gpio number set: swclk swdio
# Header pin numbers: 22 18
bcm2835gpio_swd_nums 25 24

# If you define trst or srst, use appropriate reset_config
# Header pin numbers: TRST - 26, SRST - 12

bcm2835gpio_trst_num 7
#reset_config trst_only

bcm2835gpio_srst_num 18
#reset_config srst_only srst_push_pull

# or if you have both connected,
reset_config trst_and_srst srst_push_pull

and file rpi_target.cfg contains

transport select jtag

# we need to enable srst even though we don't connect it
reset_config trst_and_srst

adapter_khz 1000
jtag_ntrst_delay 500

if { [info exists CHIPNAME] } {
  set _CHIPNAME $CHIPNAME
} else {
  set _CHIPNAME rpi3
}

#
# Main DAP
#
if { [info exists DAP_TAPID] } {
   set _DAP_TAPID $DAP_TAPID
} else {
   set _DAP_TAPID 0x4ba00477
}

jtag newtap $_CHIPNAME tap -irlen 4 -ircapture 0x1 -irmask 0xf -expected-id $_DAP_TAPID -enable
dap create $_CHIPNAME.dap -chain-position $_CHIPNAME.tap

set _TARGETNAME $_CHIPNAME.a53
set _CTINAME $_CHIPNAME.cti

set DBGBASE {0x80010000 0x80012000 0x80014000 0x80016000}
set CTIBASE {0x80018000 0x80019000 0x8001a000 0x8001b000}
set _cores 4

for { set _core 0 } { $_core < $_cores } { incr _core } {

    cti create $_CTINAME.$_core -dap $_CHIPNAME.dap -ap-num 0 \
        -ctibase [lindex $CTIBASE $_core]

    target create $_TARGETNAME.$_core aarch64 \
        -dap $_CHIPNAME.dap -coreid $_core \
        -dbgbase [lindex $DBGBASE $_core] -cti $_CTINAME.$_core

    $_TARGETNAME.$_core configure -event reset-assert-post "aarch64 dbginit"
    $_TARGETNAME.$_core configure -event gdb-attach { halt }
}

How to fix it? What am I doing wrong? Do I need to add some resistor or capacitor on data wires?

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0
+50

The problem could be due to the missing termination / impedance matching on the JTAG signals. Here's the recommended setup:

TCK should be terminated with a 68 Ω resistor and a 100 pF capacitor in series to ground, placed as close as possible to where the signal enters the final device in the chain. TDI and TMS should be pulled to the power rail with 10 kΩ resistors. TDO should be pulled to the power rail with a 10 kΩ resistor and have a 22 Ω series resistor fitted near to the final device in the chain. It is also recommended that a 10 kΩ pull-down resistor be added to the nTRST line to avoid floating inputs.

enter image description here

  • Thank you for answer. Problem is I think on TCK line. Addind resistor to any other line has no change but when I added resistor and capactior to TCK line it reports much more errors (or dont work anymore). I tried a lot of different capacitors and resistors with similar values to 68ohm and 100 pF but it never has better result. – Misaz Aug 17 at 13:05
  • @Misaz I'm sorry to hear that. Looking at the signal with a scope could perhaps shed light on the root cause. – Dmitry Grigoryev Aug 20 at 6:57
  • I have no oscilloscope but somebody other who have two raspberry pis can reproduce it. – Misaz Aug 20 at 20:14

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