On my Raspberry Pi uname -r gives me 3.6.11+ but in the 3.6.y sources the make file has:


I am trying to compile a module. I (skipping some small steps):

  • made a fresh SD card with 2013-09-25-wheezy-raspbian.img
  • downloaded linux-rpi-3.6.y.tar.gz from github
  • downloaded tools-master.tar.gz from github
  • copied config.gz from Rpi to Ubuntu
  • compiled the kernel without changing .config
  • compiled my module with the compiled kernel above

But when I tried to insmod I got "disagrees about version of symbol module_layout". At this point I am assuming it is because the source I got is 3.6.11 but my Rpi is running 3.6.11+.

How do I get the sources for 3.6.11+? Is there a Raspbian image that has just 3.6.11?

2 Answers 2


The difference between Linux 3.6.11 and 3.6.11+ is that 3.6.11+ has additional commits on top of 3.6.11 (the tag).

If you want to compile the full kernel image and modules, see http://elinux.org/RPi_Kernel_Compilation. However, it seems that you want to compile a single kernel module instead (a driver for your wireless USB stick?). In that case, you can save a lot of time, bytes and CPU time by compiling only the module you need.


  • Kernel headers and Makefiles. On Arch Linux, this is the linux-headers-raspberrypi package, for Raspbian it's probably one of the linux-headers-(version) packages.
  • If you are not using headers produced during the kernel build, but the source code (e.g. from git/tarball), then you will also need the kernel configuration file .config. This is required to produce modules that match the features enabled in the kernel.
  • The kernel symbols file Module.symvers. Without this file, you will certainly get symbol mismatch errors.
  • Kernel module source and Makefile for a module (the Makefile usually contains something like obj-$(CONFIG_MODNAME) = modname.o or obj-m = modname.o.)


There are basically two ways to build the kernel module:

  • Compiling on the Pi. This is slow, but if you have just a single source file, then installation of the dependencies will probably be easier.
  • Cross-compilation, this method makes you build the module on a faster device than your Pi (your Ubuntu installation on the laptop/desktop). It requires a suitable toolchain.

Compiling on Pi

When compiling directly on the Raspberry Pi, you would run something like this:

cd path/to/your/module/sources
make -C /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/build M=$PWD modules -j2

If everything went well, you should now have a .ko file (e.g. 8192cu.ko).


If you want to cross-compile the module, you will need a suitable toolchain. By suitable, I mean that you have to use exactly the same toolchain as was used for building the kernel. A discrepancy between the toolchain used for the kernel and module may lead to the most non-obvious errors at runtime. Getting this toolchain is out of the scope of this answer. See http://elinux.org/RPi_Kernel_Compilation#2._Cross_compiling_from_Linux for some more details. I built one a few months ago, see https://lekensteyn.nl/files/rpi/toolchains/ for instructions and a tarball.

(In the following section, replace -j8 by -j(number of cores times two).)

First, you need to set-up your build environment (adjust the prefix to something suitable for your toolchain):

export CROSS_COMPILE=/absolute/path/to/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/bin/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi-
# Alternatively:
export PATH=/absolute/path/to/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi/bin:$PATH
export CROSS_COMPILE=arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi-

Prepare kernel sources:

# (tar xf linux-3.6.11.tar.gz or git clone whatever)
cd linux-3.6.11 # or something
gunzip < path/to/config.gz > .config
make -j8 prepare scripts

Proceed with the actual module compilation process:

cd path/to/your/module/sources
# Copy Module.symvers to current directory:
cp path/to/Module.symvers .
make -C path/to/kernel/sources M=$PWD modules -j8 ARCH=arm

If all went well, you should now have a module.ko file.


Possible solution to rebuild the kernel from source (RPi Kernel Copliation) and extract relevant header files (Extract kernel headers)?

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