Can we run a program written in visual studio c++ (windows), with or without the rasp-bian OS? Any guidance about how it will be done? What software will be needed?
It really comes down to architecture and how your code is written.
Your question is not very precise. Do you want to run C++ on raspbian? Or do you want to actually use the raspberry Pi as uC?
If the first option is the case:
Just try to compile the source code on the Raspberry Pi. If the code was written with arm architecture in mind sure you can compile and run it. If not it might or might not work.
If the second option is the case:
In theory you can use it like a uC and code ur own behaviour into it but tbh I would not recommend it. Just use an embedded Linux distro if u want a uC behaviour or if u want to be more professional build a embedded Linux distro that fits your need precisely.