After working flawlessly for many months, in the morning, possibly after some packages were installed (or any other reason), my raspi showed a frozen desktop. I could not connect via ssh, so I had to pull the plug.
From then on, I was never able to boot again, always ending up with the attached boot messages. Pressing Enter just prints the same message again.
It is running from a healthy ssd. I fsck'ed both partitions and no errors were found (at least I think so - the vfat fsck did not give any output).
Still, I assume something is amiss with the /boot partition (the one the screen is complaining about). What should my next steps be? How could I check, if there really is something wrong with my boot partition and what exactly could be wrong?
I am using Raspian without noobs.
Setting the whole system up from scratch would be the very last thing, I's like to do. There were quite a few services running.