I bought Raspberry PI 4 and I need to connect to it via SSH because I do not have micro HDMI yet. I'm trying to establish the SSH connection, but PuTTY returns "Connection refused" error, but the IP is correct (The ping command on that IP works and in router administrations, there is a column with raspberrypi and IP to that raspberry). On SD card I have the Raspbian 4.19 burned using etcher, so the system should be booted properly.

1 Answer 1


You need to enable SSH on Raspberry.



select Interfacing Options and navigate to and select SSH and choose Yes.

Then reboot.

If you don't have direct access to the Raspberry with a monitor and a keyboard place a file named exactly ssh on the FAT partition of the SD card. This will activate the ssh server at the next boot.

You can find all the detailed instructions on Raspberry PI official documentation

  • I tried to create a 'ssh' file, but that requires to format the SD card to some file system and Windows can not recognize the file system, so if I tried to open the SD card in explorer, it says that the SD card need to be formatted to FAT or NTFS, which deletes the system.
    – Alex
    Nov 20, 2019 at 14:52
  • The SD card burnt with the Raspain images is made of two partitions. The boot partition, where you have to put the ssh file is a FAT32 partition so you should see a manage it also on Windows. Probably you clicked on the other partition that is not recognized by Windows.
    – blockmined
    Nov 20, 2019 at 15:11
  • Thanks you a lot, the problem was, that I needed to assign a letter for boot partition (e.g. E:) in disk manager, and after I was able to create a empty file.
    – Alex
    Nov 20, 2019 at 18:04
  • Ssh daemon is started immediately, so no need for restart
    – zhrist
    Jul 24, 2022 at 12:16

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