It seems that recently my SSD began to get corrupted almost every time I shut my Pi 3B+ down, and on boot I get:

[    4.503731]  sda: sda1 sda2
[    4.511049] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Attached SCSI disk
[    4.535157] EXT4-fs (sda2): INFO: recovery required on readonly filesystem
[    4.540448] EXT4-fs (sda2): write access will be enabled during recovery
[    4.648339] EXT4-fs (sda2): recovery complete
[    4.654438] EXT4-fs (sda2): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)
[    4.659839] VFS: Mounted root (ext4 filesystem) readonly on device 8:2.
[    4.671015] devtmpfs: mounted

I'm running my Pi 3b+ 100% of an external SSD, connected via USB. I tried mounting my SSD in another linux machine and running fsck on it, but the problem seems to recur.

I've been running it for almost a year now, without problems, and I have no reason to suspect it's a problem with the SSD itself.


$ cat /etc/fstab
proc            /proc           proc    defaults          0       0
PARTUUID=af115a56-01  /boot           vfat    defaults          0       2
PARTUUID=af115a56-02  /               ext4    defaults,noatime  0       1
 a swapfile is not a swap partition, no line here
   use  dphys-swapfile swap[on|off]  for that
none /tmp tmpfs defaults 0 0
$ mount
/dev/sda2 on / type ext4 (rw,noatime)
devtmpfs on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,relatime,size=342320k,nr_inodes=85580,mode=755)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,relatime)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,mode=755)
tmpfs on /run/lock type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,size=5120k)
tmpfs on /sys/fs/cgroup type tmpfs (ro,nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=755)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,xattr,release_agent=/lib/systemd/systemd-cgroups-agent,name=systemd)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/cpuset type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,cpuset)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/pids type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,pids)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/cpu,cpuacct type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,cpu,cpuacct)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/devices type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,devices)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/net_cls type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,net_cls)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/blkio type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,blkio)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/freezer type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,freezer)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/memory type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,memory)
systemd-1 on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type autofs (rw,relatime,fd=25,pgrp=1,timeout=0,minproto=5,maxproto=5,direct)
configfs on /sys/kernel/config type configfs (rw,relatime)
debugfs on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw,relatime)
sunrpc on /run/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw,relatime)
mqueue on /dev/mqueue type mqueue (rw,relatime)
none on /tmp type tmpfs (rw,relatime)
/dev/sda1 on /boot type vfat (rw,relatime,fmask=0022,dmask=0022,codepage=437,iocharset=ascii,shortname=mixed,errors=remount-ro)
binfmt_misc on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw,relatime)
tmpfs on /run/user/1000 type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,size=94780k,mode=700,uid=1000,gid=1000)
fusectl on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw,relatime)
gvfsd-fuse on /run/user/1000/gvfs type fuse.gvfsd-fuse (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=1000,group_id=1000)
$ df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/root       110G  6.7G   99G   7% /
devtmpfs        335M     0  335M   0% /dev
tmpfs           463M   49M  415M  11% /dev/shm
tmpfs           463M   13M  451M   3% /run
tmpfs           5.0M  4.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
tmpfs           463M     0  463M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
none            463M   56K  463M   1% /tmp
/dev/sda1        44M   23M   21M  53% /boot
tmpfs            93M     0   93M   0% /run/user/1000
  • 2
    how are you shutting your pi down? – Jaromanda X Jan 17 '20 at 4:25
  • 1
    From the terminal, shutdown now. I wait until the screen goes black before pulling the power. – user96931 Jan 17 '20 at 15:20

After I shutdown now, and wait for the process to finish, the power to the USB drive goes off (for a couple seconds), and if I unplug it before the USB power comes back on again, there's no corruption. For some reason, USB power comes back on again (after a couple seconds) and if I wait until that happens (the USB power coming back on) to unplug my SSD (or even to unplug the Pi), it gets corrupted.

  • Please accept your own answer with a click on the tick on its left side. Only this will finish the question and it will not pop up again year for year. – Ingo Jan 20 '20 at 13:14
  • Ooops, sorry for not doing that. I forgot to :) – user96931 Feb 18 '20 at 2:52

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