I am planning to control a IC ([CD74HCT299E]). I have currently GPIO-pins directly hooked up to the IC. My Question is, does the Raspberry pi have resistors before the GPIO-pin, or do I have to or should I add my own resistor between the chip and the GPIO-pin. (If anyone is interested, I'm using this programm to try to read the chip: Github CD74HCT299)
Your question is a bit unclear as you don't say whether you're using the GPIO as 1) input, 2) output, or 3) both. Your options will depend upon your usage - i.e. 1), 2) or 3).
CD74HCT299E with a
CD74HC299E (note the missing
CD74HC299E has a Supply Voltage Range (VCC) from 2V to 6V. Therefore it will interface directly with the RPi GPIO pins at 3.3V without need for voltage dividers or level shifters. See this data sheet for further details on your *299 shift register.
This recommendation will cover all cases: 1), 2) & 3).
If for some reason you are wedded to the 4.5V-5.5V part - CD74HC
T299E, and your usage case is 1) ONLY (GPIO as input), then a resistive voltage divider should work. Note this IS NOT a single series resistor as implied in your question, but a voltage divider.
T in the part number indicates this part was built (and presumably guaranteed) to meet TTL levels which would probably cover the RPi's GPIO specs for high and low. However, the RPi is not a TTL device, and I believe a level shifter will improve the reliability across this interface.
Note also that in general level shifters may be uni-directional or bi-directional. Using a bi-directional shifter will cover use cases 1) AND 2).
If you need help sizing the resistors for the voltage divider, please let us know.
The HCT variants are 4.5-6V. They may not be controllable from the Pi's 3V3 GPIO.
You don't need in-line resistors between the chip pins and the Pi pins.
However if the chip is being driven from more than 3V3 you will need to construct a voltage divider between the chip's output pin and the corresponding Pi input GPIO (to drop the voltage to a Pi safe 3V3).