In short, the Pi just stopped booting.
I looked at the boot screen, which displayes FAILED messages:
Failed to start Load Kernel Module
and keeps rebooting after
A start job is running for dev-mmcblk0p6
I can't even enter commands at this point.
I checked how the SD Card looks in an Linux File Reader in Linux.
Now, I've aquired enough skills to realize that this isn't how its supposed to be
The partitioning seems... off. By a lot.
Is there anything I can do to restore the Pi?