A simple way of doing this is to have your NodeMCU write the data to a cloud-based or 3rd-party server, and have the RPi connect to the same server to read it off again. Exactly how depends on how much data you want to send, how often, whether you need the server to store the data or just pass it on, or if you have particular requirements like security or latency.
One option might be to use Google Sheets to hold the data. Another would be to use a public MQTT broker - MQTT is a protocol designed for passing telemetry data. Real-time database services like Firebase or AWS Amplify might be a more powerful possibility, but more complicated to set up.