I want to connect my phone using BLE to a Pi 3A+. For testing I have set up a Bluetooth server using this code. I have tried connecting with nRF Connect on both a Motorola Moto e5 (Android 8.0) and a Huawei P20 Lite (Android 9.1). On both devices, it fails to connect on most attempts, although finding the Pi has never been an issue. I have also tried a 3B. It works somewhat more often, but connecting still often fails.

Debug log from nRF:

nRF Connect, 2020-11-06
Thermometer (B8:27:EB:7C:F0:0F)
V   11:24:52.201    Connecting to B8:27:EB:7C:F0:0F...
D   11:24:52.201    gatt = device.connectGatt(autoConnect = false, TRANSPORT_LE, preferred PHY = LE 1M)
D   11:25:02.527    [Broadcast] Action received: android.bluetooth.device.action.ACL_CONNECTED
D   11:25:02.550    [Callback] Connection state changed with status: 0 and new state: CONNECTED (2)
I   11:25:02.552    Connected to B8:27:EB:7C:F0:0F
V   11:25:02.577    Discovering services...
D   11:25:02.577    gatt.discoverServices()
W   11:25:07.528    Connection parameters update failed with status 8 (interval: 48.75ms, latency: 0, timeout: 5000ms)
E   11:25:07.528    Error 8 (0x8): GATT INSUF AUTHORIZATION
D   11:25:07.530    [Callback] Connection state changed with status: 8 and new state: DISCONNECTED (0)
E   11:25:07.530    Error 8 (0x8): GATT CONN TIMEOUT
I   11:25:07.531    Disconnected
D   11:25:07.600    [Broadcast] Action received: android.bluetooth.device.action.ACL_DISCONNECTED

The log on the Huawei is similar, though the GATT INSUF AUTHORIZATION error is not thrown. To me, it seems that it connects but then fails to discover the services.

On the Pi:

$ dpkg -l | grep bluez
ii  bluez                          5.50-1.2~deb10u1+rpt2               armhf        Bluetooth tools and daemons
ii  bluez-firmware                 1.2-4+rpt6                          all          Firmware for Bluetooth devices


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