EDIT: I significantly updated this after applying @Nikita Kipriyanov's answer.

As of version 5.1 or 5.01 QEMU now supports RPI2 & 3 and USB. As the network on the RPI is behind USB, I should now be able to ssh into RPI2 emulation.

I run:

qemu-system-arm \
  -M raspi2 \
  -kernel kernel7.img \
  -serial stdio \
  -append 'rw earlycon=pl011,0x3f201000 console=ttyAMA0 loglevel=2 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 f
sck.repair=yes net.ifnames=0 rootwait memtest=1 dwc_otg.fiq_fsm_enable=0' \
  -drive file=Arch.img,format=raw,if=sd \
  -dtb bcm2709-rpi-2-b.dtb \
  -no-reboot \
  -netdev user,id=net0 \
  -usb \
  -device usb-kbd \
  -device usb-tablet \
  -device usb-net,netdev=net0 \
  -device usb-net,netdev=ulan,mac=02:ca:fe:f0:0d:01 \
  -netdev user,id=ulan,hostfwd=tcp::2222-:22

Error messages & success at the end:

qemu-system-arm: warning: netdev net0 has no peer
[    0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0xf00
[    0.000000] Linux version 5.4.51-2-ARCH (builduser@leming) (gcc version 9.3.0 (GCC)) #1 SMP PREEMPT Sat Aug 8 23:15:12 UTC 2020
[    0.000000] CPU: ARMv7 Processor [410fc075] revision 5 (ARMv7), cr=10c5387d
[    0.000000] CPU: div instructions available: patching division code
[    0.000000] CPU: PIPT / VIPT nonaliasing data cache, VIPT aliasing instruction cache
[    0.000000] OF: fdt: Machine model: Raspberry Pi 2 Model B
[    0.000000] earlycon: pl11 at MMIO 0x3f201000 (options '')
[    0.000000] printk: bootconsole [pl11] enabled    
usbnet: failed control transaction: request 0x8006 value 0x600 index 0x0 length 0xa
usbnet: failed control transaction: request 0x8006 value 0x600 index 0x0 length 0xa
usbnet: failed control transaction: request 0x8006 value 0x600 index 0x0 length 0xa


[FAILED] Failed to start Load Kernel Modules.
See 'systemctl status systemd-modules-load.service' for details.


Arch Linux 5.4.51-2-ARCH (ttyAMA0)

alarmpi login:

This doesn't work, i.e. I can't ssh to port 2222.

ssh -p 2222 alarm@localhost
kex_exchange_identification: read: Connection reset by peer
Connection reset by port 2222

Note my loglevel: it is set to two.

Nothing to be seen here (the date in the emulator is wrong: "Fri Dec 18 18:08:08 UTC 2020"):

[alarm@alarmpi ~]$ journalctl -u sshd
Dec 18 17:23:47 alarmpi systemd[1]: Started OpenSSH Daemon.
Dec 18 17:23:49 alarmpi sshd[223]: Server listening on port 22.

Checking systemd:

[alarm@alarmpi ~]$ systemctl status systemd-modules-load.service
* systemd-modules-load.service - Load Kernel Modules
     Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/systemd-modules-load.service; stat>
     Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Fri 2020-12-18 17:23:48 UTC; 1min>
       Docs: man:systemd-modules-load.service(8)
    Process: 209 ExecStart=/usr/lib/systemd/systemd-modules-load (code=exited, >
   Main PID: 209 (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)

Dec 18 17:23:48 alarmpi systemd[1]: Starting Load Kernel Modules...
Dec 18 17:23:48 alarmpi systemd-modules-load[209]: Failed to look up module ali>
Dec 18 17:23:48 alarmpi systemd[1]: systemd-modules-load.service: Main process >
Dec 18 17:23:48 alarmpi systemd[1]: systemd-modules-load.service: Failed with r>
Dec 18 17:23:48 alarmpi systemd[1]: Failed to start Load Kernel Modules.
lines 1-13/13 (END)

How to troubleshoot failure to ssh into the RPI2 emulation, based on QEMU 5.2?

  • Is the Pi network 'behind USB' in emulation - I would have thought the network port would be direct unless you had a USB connected one. I know in real life some boards are but VM / Parallels always used a dedicated lan chip emulation process no matter what a Mac (I know not a Pi) had. Gut feel (and its only gut feel) is to try other options for the network port.
    – user115418
    Dec 19, 2020 at 19:03

1 Answer 1


It seems you misunderstood the QEMU network configuration. I think your command line instantiates two network interfaces, one with netdev/device usb-net, another with two nic's. Is this what you really meant to do?

The machine must have been working network through first NIC (from device usb-net/netdev), but you've set up port forwarding in the second NIC configuration, which supposedly doesn't work. This is why your port forwarding also doesn't do anything useful.

I successfully run RPi in QEMU, this is all network configuration in the emulator command line:

-device usb-net,netdev=ulan,mac=02:ca:fe:f0:0d:01 \
-netdev user,id=ulan,hostfwd=tcp::2222-:22 \

It has all the network working. I'm able to ssh into it like this: ssh -p 2222 localhost

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