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I have a Raspberry Pi 4 with 4 GB of RAM which I want to boot from SSD (Samsung 850 EVO 120 GB).

I have installed the most recent EEPROM and believe it is configured correctly:

BCM2711 detected                   
Dedicated VL805 EEPROM detected
Checking for updates in /lib/firmware/raspberrypi/bootloader/stable
BOOTLOADER: up-to-date
CURRENT: Tue Feb 16 13:23:36 UTC 2021 (1613481816)
 LATEST: Tue Feb 16 13:23:36 UTC 2021 (1613481816)
RELEASE: stable                    
VL805: up-to-date
CURRENT: 000138a1
LATEST: 000138a1

Configuration:

[all]
BOOT_UART=0
WAKE_ON_GPIO=1
POWER_OFF_ON_HALT=0
[all]
BOOT_ORDER=0xf14

The SSD is connected with a SATA-USB3 Adapter to the PIs USB ports (1 Data and 1 Power plug). When connected to USB 2.0, everything works fine. But when connected to USB 3.0 the raspberry pi never boots fully. At least I can not connect to it over Ethernet, unfortunately I do not have a micro-HDMI cable to check for diagnostics.

Is this a known problem? What can I do to make it boot over USB 3.0?

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After googling without any success for days, I found the solution right after posting the question.

The details are posted here

The gist: find out the PID/VID of your SATA adapter.

lsusb && lsusb -t
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 152d:0578 JMicron Technology Corp. / JMicron USA Technology Corp. JMS567 SATA 6Gb/s bridge

The important information is 152d:0578.

Now edit /boot/cmdline.txt and add the following at the beginning of the line:

usb-storage.quirks=152d:0578:u ...

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