I have a couple of files on the Raspberry Pi's file system that I need to get. I have the Pi's SD card and an SD card reader.
How can I read files off my Raspberry Pi's SD Card on a Windows PC?
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Easiest way would be to boot a PC into linux and mount the SD card. Any 'live' CD or USB stick disto would do. As you are used to raspian a Debian based distro like Ubuntu or Mint might be best. If you download unetbootin it will give you a menu of distros, download your choice, write it to a USB stick and make the stick bootable. Then just reboot and you have a machine that can read your SD card. Copy the stuff onto your hard disc, or another USB stick (or even the boot one - it won't be full and will be FAT32). Reboot back into Windows and you are done.
If you have an USB Key, you could boot your Pi and simply copy the files onto the key. Another solution would be to install a Linux Live System onto the stick, boot your PC from there and copy the files from the SD to your hard drive. If you don't have an USB key, you can boot your Pi, connect from your PC via SSH and copy the files via scp. Or via FTP, SMB ...
If you can ssh into your Pi, then you can also sftp into it. [sftp username@IPaddress] Navigate to the directory using change directory. [cd] If along the way you need to look at the directory contents, you can list them. [dir] Then use the get command to retrieve the file. [get filename] If you know the exact path, you can get it without the navigation. [get /path/to/filename]