My ubuntu 21 hanged and after rebooting, it was not able to boot up. The current message is this one. Tried to use fsck with -y and -f and none of them fixes the partition. It happened with the raspberry pi 4 100.
In general, this is an indication of a dying sd card.
What happens is, that
fsck tries to recover the journal, tries to write the superblock, but then finds that the superblock is not updated.
If you have important work on this Pi, you should
dd the partition to a hard drive and try some forensics on it. The partition table seems OK, so there seems no need to dd the whole card.
It may be, that the card will boot after being let alone for a few hours, but even if that is the case, you should replace the card.
You may also have some luck with
e2fsck -fccky, which means:
-f Force checking even if the file system seems clean. -c This option causes e2fsck to use badblocks(8) program to do a read-only scan of the device in order to find any bad blocks. If any bad blocks are found, they are added to the bad block inode to prevent them from being allocated to a file or direc‐ tory. If this option is specified twice, then the bad block scan will be done using a non-destructive read-write test. -k When combined with the -c option, any existing bad blocks in the bad blocks list are preserved, and any new bad blocks found by running badblocks(8) will be added to the existing bad blocks list. -y Assume an answer of `yes' to all questions; allows e2fsck to be used non-interactively. This option may not be specified at the same time as the -n or -p options.
But I would buy a new sd card.