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I need to dock the 12V relay when giving the command via software, however, the GPIO provides only 3.3V not being enough to arm the relay.

My idea is to use a voltage booster (Step-up Mt3608) to raise the 3.3V to 12V and arm the relay.

I am using a dry contact relay, so the 12V would only be used to arm the relay and will not feed or share voltage with any other device.

Could this cause any harm to Raspberry or GPIO?

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You should never try to operate a relay's coils using power from a GPIO. The Pi will not be able to supply enough current to operate the coils and the back EMF from the collapsing relay electrical field will destroy the GPIO and the Pi.

Use a relay module to operate the relay. Preferably a relay module which accepts 3V3 logic signals.

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