i experienced some serious problems with my Raspberry Pi 4 regarding my USB 3.0 ports. I was using the raspberry as a server (torrents, ftps, http etc...). To store the data i opted for a 1Tb usb hdd i had laying around, I plugged it in and it worked absolutely fine for months, one day i noticed that i wasn't able to access my ftps cliend so i connected to ssh to check the problem. I noticed that the hdd was somehow disconnected (not recognized, i tried using lsusb to check but it was undetected). I started searching through logs when i started to see some particular lines in dmesg
device descriptor read/64, error -110
device descriptor read/64, error -71
I tried everything, from buying a powered usb cable to add config to modprobe to make usbcore use the old linux usb schema, i formatted the sd and put a new copy of raspberry pi os. I tested with other usb devices, the hdd works flawlessly with other computers. I also tried to connect a small 8 Gb usb stick to the raspberry to see if the problem was of the hdd but the raspberry didn't recognize the stick too. Basically when i connect the hdd to the raspberry the led of the hdd powers up for 3 to 10 seconds then it goes dark again. The only way to make it work is to use the USB 2.0 ports, but it's a temporary arrangement since i want to install a usb sdd to the raspberry instead of the sd.
I hope to resolve this problem soon, so thanks in advance for any help.