Just came across this question while trying to connect a webcam. If the webcam encapsulated audio that is fine. But what if I want to attach a microphone in another location / locations.
Question: How can I record audio using a microphone?
There is no microphone input in the Raspberry Pi. Raspberry Pi's sound chip only supports audio output, not input. If you want to record some audio using RPi you will have to use some external microphone device, like USB microphone. Some USB webcameras also have build in microphones so you could use it.
You can plug Sony Singstar usb microphones into the RPi and record using Audacity. The sound quality is not the best, but it's not too bad and it does work.
P.S. I've found the Sony Eye-Toy usb camera with a mic doesn't work well like this.
You can either use a USB sound card or a GPIO header based sound card, such as the ones mentioned here.
By location, if you mean a different sound card, try using audacity and it will allow you to select the recording input device.
If you want to record in different locations (with different Pis), perhaps you can stream them over the network ? Using something like the rtp from ffmpeg (avconv).
Thank you for your interest in this question.
Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site (the association bonus does not count).
Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead?