Alas no, it is not possible to connect a SATA device to the SD slot.
Unlike earlier flash memory standards like Compact Flash, which essentially used a Parallel ATA hard drive interface (scaled down in size) to attach flash memory, SD cards use a 1 or 4 bit serial interface and (more importantly) a different command protocol.
CF cards spoke the ATA command protocol and were electrically compatible with PATA, so all that was required to plug a CF card into an ATA port was a simple adapter which mapped one connector pinout to another (like a microSD to SD card adapter).
To create an SD to SATA converter would require a small embedded processor with an SD card interface on one side, and SATA interface on the other and some software to translate the protocols. This is essentially what the card you linked to does, in the opposite direction, but that direction is much easier.
You only need to support the limited set of SD card memory sizes and it is much easier to map SD functionality onto a SATA interface than vice versa. As an example, SDHC only supports up to 32GB cards for instance, so how should it handle SATA hard drives which are larger?
Given how cheap USB to SATA adapters are, the limitations that would have to be placed on an SD to SATA adapter, and the limited market for them, it wouldn't be economical to produce such an adapter.
As such, I would suggest looking at ways to attach your SATA hard drive via a USB port on a powered USB hub attached to your Raspberry Pi. You will still need a small SD card to boot off, but these are also very cheap these days.
There is more information on this option in the question Boot from external USB stick / drive?