Is there a toolkit that has a simple robot augmented with Raspberry Pi? The robot should have sensors that estimate robot's pose. I'm looking for simple robots. I've done some simulations in OpenGL and Matlab for Localization and SLAM problems using EKF. I'm very good in C/C++ and Matlab. I would be glad to hear any suggestions.
Various kits are available for use with the Pi, from varying places - for example
Linux magazine did a neat article on how to build a robot - you may be able to buy the bits for it from here
Software components are also easily available out of the Pis repos or off of the internet - pre-configured stuff can also be found (e.g. a 'Dawn Robotics SD card')
I did a small search some time ago for relatively cheap and simple robot packages that could be connected to the Raspberry Pi.
Notes: has a stick instead of a third wheel; only supports Raspberry Pi B.
Notes: no third wheel; small.
Notes: bit more expensive; strong construction and strong motors; due to having no steering the wheel encoders probably will have more noise (due to slippage).
Note (Oct. 2017): Ryanteck decided to stop selling this product.
I chose the last one because of its price and simplicity for some prior testing. Note that none of the kits come with a Raspberry Pi, but it can be installed easily.