The short answer is no, a 9V battery will not power a Raspberry Pi for 24 hours.
Firstly, it is the wrong voltage. RPi's require 5V (see http://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/power/README.md). It's possible to build a regulator that will step the 9V battery down to 5V, but that probably won't be much use as explained below.
Secondly, it doesn't provide sufficient charge. A typical commercial 9V battery has a 400-600mAH charge. Raspberry Pi B+ current draw will depend on your use and the appliances attached (such as your camera). Some sample draws are shown at What's the current draw and supply voltage tolerance?. These show that a conservative draw would be 350mA or so, but can go much higher.
You don't get the benefit of the full charge. Duracell provides a nice performance spec for their MN1604 9V battery (search: Duracell coppertop nm1604 datasheet). The voltage regulator will also not be 100% efficient.
Divide you supply by your usage, multiple by .5 (give or take), and you'll get a good estimate of how long you can run your RPi. 500mhA/300ma * .5 = .83 hours, or about 50 mins. If you're taking lots of pictures, I'd expect draw to be much higher. if it's cold or hot, you'll get less of the charge from the battery.
I think you'd be much better off buying a commercial battery pack that meets the power requirements of the references above.