I think you find that those things work with X11 and not from a Linux console - I believe you will want to Read The Fine Man-pages to look at the command line program
locale(1)1 and then set (and export) the relevant environment variables for the editor program to detect. i.e. type
locale -a should report all the locales available for you and changing the right variable (probably LANG for the system environment - where you are and the standards for your location; and LANGUAGE for what you want to enter) to what you want before starting your program should change your settings, i.e. on my Debian PC:
stephen@ripley:~$ locale -a
Tue Dec 8 14:57:49 GMT 2015
Now I haven't got the Korean locale currently installed but a quick
stephen@ripley:~$ sudo apt-get install locales-all
fixed that for me, so I can then do:
stephen@ripley:~$ export LANG=ko_KR.uft8
stephen@ripley:~$ export LANGUAGE=ko_KR.uft8
2015. 12. 08. (화) 15:09:37 GMT
Some of the bigger applications have their own localisation packages for each locale e.g. the Iceweasel (Debian branded FireFox web browser) but this should get you pointed in the right direction.
I did also need to install vim (and some dependencies as well) as the vim-tiny I found was installed and aliased to
vi did not seem to be internationalised. I do not have any Pis up and running to test the situation for Raspbian.
All the locales together do take up a bit of space so you may want to run a command to remove the unneeded ones - I found
localepurge in my Debian PC, I hope that made it across into Raspbian and that this gives you some pointers...!
1The convention for Unixes is to specify the "section" of the
) around the section number (or number with a letter suffix for some cases) - and Section 1 is all about command line programs!