I'm aware that the Raspbian mount command can specify a different filesystem table with the -T and --fstab arguments. But can you change the name of the table that is used at boot time? i.e. is this parameterised somewhere?
Maybe, since in fact the way this works is
mount called by an init service. On current versions of Raspbian, init is systemd, and looking at
man systemd-mount (which pertains to services with a
.mount suffix) implies that it might indeed be hardcoded. However, if you really wanted to, you probably could find a way to disable that and create your own service that plays an appropriate role. Since there are much simpler ways to accomplish the same thing (e.g., symlink
/etc/fstab) I doubt anyone has done so.
Earlier versions of Raspbian using SysV init presumably used a script which you could edit. The problem with this is your changes would not likely be protected from system updates. A better approach would be, as with systemd, to tweak init's service set and supplant your own.
In both cases, doing so would require a bit of diligence and study since getting the root filesystem mounted is usually a critical element of the boot process and must be properly completed before most other things can happen.