The Pi has a 5 volt output. This DC motor draws about 600 mA when it is stalled. Is it safe to power the DC motor using the Pi's 5 volt output pin? If not, can I power it with a microusb charger?
Do NOT try to power it from a GPIO.
Yes, you can power the motor from the 5V pin (although it looks like a servo the blurb makes clear it is just an ordinary DC motor in a servo like housing).
However, if you do so the motor will run at a fixed speed in a fixed direction.
If you want to control the direction and/or speed you will need to connect it via a motor driver board, google for L9110S or L298N.
well there is a way to power a DC motor with only 5 volts from GPIO pins. first you will deed a 5 volt motor and and attach a small arm or Popsicle stick and make the arm face a button, that button controls the negative side of a different power source that matches the voltage of your DC motor to that when you make the 5V motor turn to press the button it allows the power from a different power source to power your DC motor. you will have to code the motor to be inverted when you do not want the DC motor to go forward.