The web browser options in Raspbian do seem a bit sub par, although to be fair it is not a problem I give a lot of thought to since I use pis headless, sans remote desktop, and only plug in a monitor and fire up the GUI on occasion.
However, I believe Ice Weasel is there. Note that the "rebranding and trademark issue" comes down to the firefox logo, so this is literally firefox "rebranded", since its licensing allows for such use of the source code. It also sounds, in the current version of the linked article, like that whole problem is being resolved and in the near future Debian will replace "ice weasel" (get it?) with the "genuine fire fox".
So if you can tolerate firefox, there you go.
Part of the problem historically is that running full fledged contemporary file browsers on the pi was only marginally feasible -- again this may be a subjective bias of mine since I see the whole desktop that way -- since they just don't have the umph or RAM required.
The Pi 3 is probably a slightly different story (I don't have one), although doubling the RAM and adding $5 to the price tag would have made it much more so.