I just ran in the same issue with the extra problem that the Raspberry Pi is running with a 3G in a remote location.
My conclusion after examining how this can be avoided, I conclude that the one has to modify the startup scripts by modifying the call to 'sulogin'.
When 'fsck' returns with error, 'sulogin' gets called without a time out.
So I edited '/etc/init.d/checkfs.sh' and '/etc/init.d/checkroot.sh' so that 'sulogin' also gets a '-t' parameter in all cases (I put 'sulogin -t 60 $CONSOLE' where you read 'sulogin $CONSOLE').
I can't see a clean way to put a parameter in '/etc/default/rcS'. You can set 'FCSKFIX=yes' in there, but that will not avoid 'sulogin'. A hack could be to define CONSOLE like this 'CONSOLE="-t 60 "$CONSOLE"' but that could have unwanted sideeffects as CONSOLE is also used in other locations.