@SteveRobillard answered my question in the comments. I will re-iterate it here for everyone to see clearly!
1. Viewing running programs:
In the terminal type:
ps aux | grep programname
ps = display currently running processes
a = show processes for all users
u = display the process' user/owner
x = show processes not attached to a terminal
grep = search for a name of the process (i.e. programname)
2. Viewing the currently open terminal session over SSH.
Use tmux or screen. I used tmux and followed instructions provided in the blog run by @jacob001 and @SteveRobillard: https://raspberrypise.tumblr.com/post/141348857424/tmux-101-installing-from-source.
Once tmux was installed, as per installation guide, I tested it by running my program through it on my RPi. Then I connected to the RPi remotely via SSH using my laptop (I used weaved.com service in this case). Once connected, I typed
tmux in the terminal to run it and a new session opened. Subsequently, I typed
( to switch to the previous session (the one I initialized earlier on my RPi). And voilà, this way I could access live program's output (printed sensor values) remotely!