To expand a little on the comments: there's a couple of ways of looking at this. If your question is "from which languages can I use the Pi's camera module?" then @goldilocks is absolutely correct - the answer is effectively "all of them". The main supported API for the camera module is MMAL, which is designed for use from C. However, almost every language out there can talk to C APIs (because if they couldn't, they wouldn't be much use on OS' which provided their services via C-style APIs, such as Linux). By way of example, the picamera API is written entirely in Python, using Python's own mechanisms to access the existing MMAL API. Hence, you could use the camera from Python without the aid of picamera ... it'd just be a lot more work.
Which brings us to what I think you really want to ask: "from which languages can I easily use the Pi's camera module?" or to put it another way: "in which languages have high level bindings been written for the Pi's camera module". To the best of my knowledge, these are currently:
P.S. the UNIX shell absolutely is a programming language; it's got variables, branching, loops, even functions. It's a programming language, no two ways about it.
P.P.S. I didn't include C above because obviously there's an API for that already, but I'm not sure I'd class it "high level".