Yes, SSH is the default way to interact cli only with a system. In the newest image of raspbian ssh is disabled by default, you can enabled it by creating a file 'ssh' in the boot partition.
To connect to your raspberry pi, get its IP(internal if you are on the same network) and use a ssh client to connect to it.
On windows this will be putty for example.
On all Linux distros you can run ssh from the terminal eq:
ssh -l pi 192.168.0.100
Here is ssh the command for ssh, -l is for the login name(it is pi here) and 192.168.0.100 is the internal IP for my pi.