FTP would I think be your best bet here.
If you expect that no one else but you (or those with access to sufficient priveleges) will be transferring files to your Pi, then the
sftp-server that came installed your Pi should suffice.
Otherwise, you may want to install
Pure-FTPd. There's good documentation here: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/remote-access/ftp.md.
To log into your system via FTP from Windows, you will need an FTP Client on Windows. FileZilla seems to be the most popular choice here. You can download it from the official project website: filezilla-project.org. Make sure to get the client version for Windows, and not server.
Once installed, bring up the Site Manager by clicking on its icon at the top-left in the toolbar. Or via File > Site Manager.
Then click on New Site, and populate the fields with your own credentials, like so:
Host: This is your pi's IP address, which you can discover by doing
sudo ifconfig. If your pi is connected to your network through an Ethernet cable, it's the IP address next to "eth0". If on Wifi, use the address next to "wlan0".
Hit Connect, and you should land in the home directory.