I just replaced my laptop's hard drive with a new ssd that's running arch. I want to be able to set up my old hard drive (which was running windows 10) so that I can remotely access it. Is it possible with a raspberry pi? Or are there any alternatives?
If you get an USB to SATA External Hard Drive Bay like this one it should be no problem to attach it to a raspberry pi and share it via samba and lan/wlan.
An off topic alternative is a NAS case without drive like this one
The links are no hardware recommendations, only examples of the enclosures I refer to.