I think the easiest thing to do would be to Run a VNCserver. This way you can login to your pi, much like you do through putty, but with access to the GUI desktop.
Oops, it looks like this has been tried before. Apparently the
raspivid command line tools won't show up over VNC either.
Since you said you are planning on using openCV, I would try using OpenCV's GUI to show the image:
from picamera import PiCamera
from time import sleep
# Also import these two modules
from picamera.array import PiRGBArray
# Set up PiCamera and let it warm up
camera = PiCamera()
raw = PiRGBArray(camera)
# Capture to a PiRGBArray
image = raw.array
# Use OpenCV's gui to show the image
cv2.waitKey(0) # Wait for key press to close preview
I think this should be visible over VNC.