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My raspberry pi is placed where a lot of dust accumulates on the surface.I recently checked and there was a layer of dust settled on it.

I cleaned up the device and restarted it.

To my surprise, Its working a bit faster than before.

I want to know if dust reduces heat dissipation considerably to warrant cleaning it regularly.

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Aside from heat issues, dust can also cause other problems. Dust can be conductive, and could cause a short between chip pins. Dust can also capture moisture, which promotes corrosion.

When you say a lot of dust accumulates, or there was a layer of dust on it, that really does not quantify it much, but if it's enough that you are worried, you should look into placing your Pi in a case. Even one as simple as a small cardboard box would protect it from dust.

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From the website

The Raspberry Pi is built from commercial chips which are qualified to different temperature ranges; the LAN9512 is specified by the manufacturers being qualified from 0°C to 70°C, while the AP is qualified from -40°C to 85°C. You may well find that the board will work outside those temperatures, but we’re not qualifying the board itself to these extremes.

The Raspberry Pi does not have any issues with heating. Ok... that is a bit of an exaggeration, but a little bit of dust should not affect it, or warrant cleaning it regularly. Unless you see temperature in excess of 60 C, you should not worry about heat-related performance issues.

If you are still concerned, you could create a program to monitor the heat. Please see this question for more information.

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