Assuming that you are using sudo to attempt to read /etc/network/interfaces. Then the file appears to be missing. Check by trying to list the network folder
$ sudo ls -l /etc/network/
From the ifconfig output it's clear that your pi doesn't have an IP address on the wlan0 interface. Check the wpa_supplicant file. First check that it's present.
$ sudo ls -l /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant
If it is, then check the contents.
$ sudo cat /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant
Use the information from the documentation here https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/wireless/wireless-cli.md to configure it correctly.
At a minimum the file should contain the ssid of your access point and the pasword or pre-shared key. (normally at the end of the file) e.g.
Once you are sure the configuration files are correct then try restarting the wlan0 interface.
$ sudo ifconfig wlan0 down
$ sudo ifconfig wlan0 up
Then run ifconfig again to display the connection status, it may take some time to obtain an address so be patient. (e.g. up to 1 minute but usually faster)
$ sudo ifconfig