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Is there a way to find the boot process detail, the image takes more time to boot. The following command shows kernel takes more than 2 minutes and userspace takes more than 1 minute. How can we reduce the booting time?

pi@raspberrypi:~$ systemd-analyze 
Startup finished in 2min 5.178s (kernel) + 1min 20.384s (userspace) = 3min 25.562s

I am using NON-NOOBS Raspbian, it usually takes less than 10 seconds for kernel before the image was converted to read-only.

  • Which model Pi ? Are you using latest Raspbian Stretch with Desktop 2017-09-07 ? What is the spec of your sd card ? My Pi3 : Startup finished in 1.859s (kernel) + 11.283s (userspace) = 13.142s – CoderMike Sep 25 '17 at 15:27
  • On a fresh raspbian lite install on a Zero W, I see: $ systemd-analyze Startup finished in 2.761s (kernel) + 26.269s (userspace) = 29.030s. I can't get to my RPi 3 with Pixel desktop, but it's usually up and running in less than a minute. What sort of microSD card are you using? 2 min+ for the kernel seems more than a bit off. – bobstro Sep 26 '17 at 3:14
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systemd-analyze critical-chain

will show the longest path.

You can use other systemd-analyze options to analyse individual components.

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You could compile a smaller kernel with less functionality. A small monolitic kernel is faster to boot.

  • Good idea for very fast boot, but OP has another problem, 2min 5.178s kernel time is very long – pim Sep 26 '17 at 10:55
  • @pim: is there any other way to check which kernel service or module takes more time – user73636 Sep 27 '17 at 5:15

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