UPDATE: Firefox is working on Ubuntu Mate 18.04! I am writing this from Firefox 64 on a RPi 2B running Ubuntu Mate. It seems that the issue has been fixed in the OS upgrade. The new Firefox seems to use a lot more memory than the older versions, however.
No, not on standard Raspbian or Ubuntu MATE
Due to an unresolved issue since Firefox 55, the newer Firefox versions (latest is now Firefox 58) do not work on standard Raspbian or Ubuntu MATE. This issue continues up to the present. I myself have tried out each new version on Ubuntu MATE.
On standard Raspbian, the best you can do for now is to stay with Firefox ESR, as it will still get security updates. The latest RPi compatible ESR version is currently Firefox 52.5.2 ESR.
On Ubuntu you can go with Firefox 45.0.2, or you can use 52.0.2 at your own risk. Firefox 52.0.2 does not receive security updates and may be vulnerable to attack.
There does seem to be a workaround, though. See jdonald's answer below for more information.
What I really wish is that the Firefox issue will be resolved for ever soon. This is unlikely, though, as nobody wants to take responsibility for fixing it. (You can do your own research on this if you want.)
Hope this helps!