Yes, you can install specific packages (in theory) from older versions of Raspbian. There is the chance that packages may conflict, but apt will let you know if there are any serious conflicts that need your attention.
First, remove the current version of Chromium:
apt-get remove chromium
Then, you need to add the Jessie repositories to your Pi's sources. Create a new file in
jessie.list. Add the following into it:
deb http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian jessie main contrib non-free
deb-src http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian jessie main contrib non-free
Then, you need to tell apt to use the Stretch repositories by default, unless asked. Do this by creating a file called
Further documentation of apt's configuration is available here, if interested.
You can then install from Jessie using
apt-get install -t jessie chromium
You may be told of some conflicts. You will need to resolve the dependencies (possibly by installing those packages also with the older versions) and also it may be wise to 'pin' the old version so it doesn't get auto-upgraded again/