I noticed the MAME sets at Archive.org MAY work with Retropie OS, but it's over 200 GB, and I was wondering if there was any way of knowing which games will or won't run, or if there were prewritten SD card files for a 32 GB, 64 GB, etc.
I noticed the MAME sets at Archive.org MAY work with Retropie OS
As with any MAME installation, to have the best chance of working you have to match the ROMs to the version of MAME.
For example, at the time of writing, RetroPie uses MAME-2003 which is based on MAME 0.78. Therefore you must use ROMs that are part of the MAME 0.78 ROM set.
According to https://retropie.org.uk/docs/MAME/ retroPie also supports several other releases of MAME:
EMULATOR ROM FOLDER VERSION FOR ROM mame4all-pi arcade or mame-mame4all MAME 0.37b5 lr-mame2000 arcade or mame-libretro MAME 0.37b5 lr-mame2003 arcade or mame-libretro MAME 0.78 lr-mame2003-plus arcade or mame-libretro MAME 0.78-MAME 0.188 lr-mame2010 arcade or mame-libretro MAME 0.139 lr-mame2015 arcade or mame-libretro MAME 0.160 lr-mame2016 arcade or mame-libretro MAME 0.174 AdvanceMAME 0.94 arcade or mame-advmame MAME 0.94 AdvanceMAME 1.4 arcade or mame-advmame MAME 0.106 AdvanceMAME 3 arcade or mame-advmame MAME 0.106
Dropping MAME 0.78 ROMs into RetroPie's
roms/arcade folder works fine.
I was wondering if there was any way of knowing which games will or won't run
There's no definitive list that I know of.
Games intended for older games-consoles (NES etc) are likely to run well. Games for the most recent games-consoles are likely to run very poorly on a Raspberry Pi.
A Raspberry Pi 4 will acceptably run a wider range of games than a Raspberry Pi 3.
There is a list at https://github.com/RetroPie/RetroPie-Setup/wiki/Arcade which points to (for example) lr-mame2003.tsv on Google Docs