Is it possible to connect a rooted Android device to a RPI via USB and then SSH into the RPI from the Android device over the USB connection? If so is there any documents or tutorials out there that outline this? I've done it from wireless several times but I would like to achieve the SSH connection over the USB cable.
You could do that, using android's USB tethering. On android 4 this option should be at
settings>more>Tethering and portable hotspot>USB tethering (option becomes enabled when you plug the USB to the PI).
Then you need to set up your PI for this:
1) add the following to /etc/network/interfaces:
auto eth0 iface eth0 inet dhcp iface usb0 inet dchp
2) and execute the following command:
Confirm your connection is up via
@GuySoft answer needs to be updated based on Raspian Jessie from this answer:
DO NOT MODIFY /etc/network/interfaces
Add the following to the end of /etc/dhcpcd.conf
interface usb0 static ip_address=192.168.42.42/24 static routers=192.168.42.1 static domain_name_servers=126.96.36.199
routers and domain_name_servers line may not be necessary
You might want to read my answer here. It describes how to connect to ssh using USB tethering and your Pi. Bonus: you can even add android's WiFi hotspot to that solution and connect more devices.
If that's not enough, you can use adb to forward your SSH port with
adb forward <local> <remote> and
adb reverse <remote> <local>
From my experience, you will need a recent adb build, which you'll have to compile yourself as described in my answer here.