Trying to use the Raspberry Pi camera board to capture an image when it "sees" a reflective strip. Is this possible? How could I go about doing this?
I will at least answer the RasPi part of your question.
Here is how to get images from the camera module into OpenCV: http://thinkrpi.wordpress.com/2013/05/22/opencv-and-camera-board-csi/
Be aware that you will be lucky to get above 5 FPS with this method, but it is probably as good as it will get with this method.
As for the CV part, you are asking in the wrong place.