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Can I control high voltage (here 5V) to power a led lamp and a fan(both operating at 5v) from Raspberry Pi GPIO only using a transistor . Or should I isolate both the circuits using a relay or octo-coupler

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yes, you CAN just use a npn transistor:

schematic

see more info here

but if you want to use A pnp transistor:

I think a voltage divider with a pnp transistor might work:

schematic

simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab

you probably just want to go with the npn circuit, though.

  • Obviously you haven't tried this – Milliways Mar 6 '18 at 21:15
  • No, not the pnp voltage-divider circuit. I adapted that from another website. but I have used the npn one. – scitronboy Mar 6 '18 at 23:48

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