So, i'm just getting into raspberry pi and I am yet to have my order of circuit parts such as LEDs and resistors arrive. My question is that if I turn the GPIO pins on without any circuits attached to the pins will my raspberry pi burn out, short out, or break in any way. Thank you.
No, it will not. Unconnected pins will present simply high impedance, setting them as logical output and given value (high or low) definitely will not damage them or board when they are not connected.