I've run several Raspberry Pi's outdoors in my CA garden, which reached 100F on some days. Your project is definitely feasible, but it will take a surprising amount of supporting infrastructure.
Software: given the temperature variations, you should reboot the Raspberry Pi frequently to reset it to a known state. I've had Raspberry Pis drop off WiFi even though other Pi software kept going.
Temperature: Insulation is a primary concern and you can use thin, reflective foam insulation to good advantage. Also house the Raspberry Pi in a shaded location next to a large thermal mass that can help maintain acceptable temperatures. E.g., the air can be 100F but the concrete pillar in the shade is no doubt cooler. You can even bury your Pi enclosure in the ground. If you're lucky, your outdoor location may not need an active cooling solution.
Water: It rains it pours--zap dead Pi. Find a good weatherproof enclosure and verify that it works with a garden hose before deploying it.
Power: providing remote power to the Raspberry Pi is easily done with a solar panel that recharges a 12V lead-acid battery (yes and you need to keep that cool and dry as well!). The NEC has guidelines for voltages in applications subject to wet contact. 12V is fine. 24V is not. Use a DC-to-DC buck converter to feed your Pi.
Wiring: use weatherproof cables, connectors and housings. UV and rain are your enemies.
MadMax: it's outside. Vandalism and physical security are considerations.
All THAT for a wee little Pi? Yes.