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I've tested this over various Raspberry Pi's(Pi Zero and Pi 2) and different versions of Raspbian lite(Latest to oldest version from 2015) and different versions of BlueZ (5.23, 5.43, 5.49). I have also tested this on multiple cheap CSR 4 USB Bluetooth devices as well as an ancient USB Bluetooth 2.1 module.

The issue is that when I change the Bluetooth class to 0x20041C (for a project of turning the Pi into a Bluetooth speaker), it always switches to 0x00041C and ignores my suggested Service Class part of the class identifier.

What I've been doing for changing the Bluetooth class is as so: I add Class = 0x20041C to both the file /etc/bluetooth/main.conf as well as the config specific to my Bluetooth device /var/lib/bluetooth/<MACADDRESS OF BLUETOOTH>/config. After that I restart the Pi to update the Bluetooth changes, and when I run hciconfig -a it shows the class for HCI0 (my USB bluetooth device) as 0x00041C. Even running

sudo hciconfig hci0 class 0x20041C

temporarily changes it, but once I restart the bluetooth service the Class just goes right back to 0x00041C.

As far as I'm aware there isn't anything that I am doing differently than all of the other countless tutorials online for working with Bluetooth on the Pi (as well as making bluetooth speakers with it) and I don't understand why my case is any different and causes this weirdly simple error.

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/var/lib/bluetooth/settings is going to be volatile. If you change it there, it will be reverted back to original configuration.

In your /etc/systemd/system/ you should see a dbus-org.bluez.service which is symlinked and aliased from the /lib/system/system/bluetooth.service file.

If the service type is dbus, then you might want to configure it in there.

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