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My aim is to count people entering and leaving a bus using an overhead camera as shown in the bus and in the mall. How can I do it in Raspberry Pi?

Is there any software or sources or platforms available for it?

closed as too broad by joan, Steve Robillard, Aurora0001, Dmitry Grigoryev, tlhIngan Jul 19 '18 at 15:58

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

2

The following examples are taken from Py Image Search (using the link provided by Cody's answer). I have provided the code and the summary in case the information contained therein becomes unavailable due to link death, as, over time, this is often the case.


Two different approaches are possible:

  • Fast moving, real-time object detection and OpenCV benchmark on the Raspberry Pi
  • Slower moving object detection on the Raspberry Pi

For full explanations see the original article, Py Image Search.

Real time object detection and OpenCV benchmark on the Raspberry Pi

Create a file called real_time_object_detection.py and enter the following code:

# import the necessary packages
from imutils.video import VideoStream
from imutils.video import FPS
import numpy as np
import argparse
import imutils
import time
import cv2

# construct the argument parse and parse the arguments
ap = argparse.ArgumentParser()
ap.add_argument("-p", "--prototxt", required=True,
    help="path to Caffe 'deploy' prototxt file")
ap.add_argument("-m", "--model", required=True,
    help="path to Caffe pre-trained model")
ap.add_argument("-c", "--confidence", type=float, default=0.2,
    help="minimum probability to filter weak detections")
args = vars(ap.parse_args())

# initialize the list of class labels MobileNet SSD was trained to
# detect, then generate a set of bounding box colors for each class
CLASSES = ["background", "aeroplane", "bicycle", "bird", "boat",
    "bottle", "bus", "car", "cat", "chair", "cow", "diningtable",
    "dog", "horse", "motorbike", "person", "pottedplant", "sheep",
    "sofa", "train", "tvmonitor"]
COLORS = np.random.uniform(0, 255, size=(len(CLASSES), 3))

# load our serialized model from disk
print("[INFO] loading model...")
net = cv2.dnn.readNetFromCaffe(args["prototxt"], args["model"])

# initialize the video stream, allow the camera sensor to warm up,
# and initialize the FPS counter
print("[INFO] starting video stream...")
vs = VideoStream(src=0).start()
# vs = VideoStream(usePiCamera=True).start()
time.sleep(2.0)
fps = FPS().start()

# loop over the frames from the video stream
while True:
    # grab the frame from the threaded video stream and resize it
    # to have a maximum width of 400 pixels
    frame = vs.read()
    frame = imutils.resize(frame, width=400)

    # grab the frame dimensions and convert it to a blob
    (h, w) = frame.shape[:2]
    blob = cv2.dnn.blobFromImage(cv2.resize(frame, (300, 300)),
        0.007843, (300, 300), 127.5)

    # pass the blob through the network and obtain the detections and
    # predictions
    net.setInput(blob)
    detections = net.forward()

    # loop over the detections
    for i in np.arange(0, detections.shape[2]):
        # extract the confidence (i.e., probability) associated with
        # the prediction
        confidence = detections[0, 0, i, 2]

        # filter out weak detections by ensuring the `confidence` is
        # greater than the minimum confidence
        if confidence > args["confidence"]:
            # extract the index of the class label from the
            # `detections`, then compute the (x, y)-coordinates of
            # the bounding box for the object
            idx = int(detections[0, 0, i, 1])
            box = detections[0, 0, i, 3:7] * np.array([w, h, w, h])
            (startX, startY, endX, endY) = box.astype("int")

            # draw the prediction on the frame
            label = "{}: {:.2f}%".format(CLASSES[idx],
                confidence * 100)
            cv2.rectangle(frame, (startX, startY), (endX, endY),
                COLORS[idx], 2)
            y = startY - 15 if startY - 15 > 15 else startY + 15
            cv2.putText(frame, label, (startX, y),
                cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 0.5, COLORS[idx], 2)

    # show the output frame
    cv2.imshow("Frame", frame)
    key = cv2.waitKey(1) & 0xFF

    # if the `q` key was pressed, break from the loop
    if key == ord("q"):
        break

    # update the FPS counter
    fps.update()

# stop the timer and display FPS information
fps.stop()
print("[INFO] elapsed time: {:.2f}".format(fps.elapsed()))
print("[INFO] approx. FPS: {:.2f}".format(fps.fps()))

# do a bit of cleanup
cv2.destroyAllWindows()
vs.stop()

Run this code using

$ python real_time_object_detection.py \
    --prototxt MobileNetSSD_deploy.prototxt.txt \
    --model MobileNetSSD_deploy.caffemodel
[INFO] loading model...
[INFO] starting video stream...
[INFO] elapsed time: 54.70
[INFO] approx. FPS: 0.90

Note

It is possible to obtain ~0.9 fps throughput using this method and the Raspberry Pi.

It can be seen that the Raspberry Pi is substantially slower than a laptop where it is possible to obtain 6-7 fps.

Hence, when using the Raspberry Pi for deep learning object detection, one needs lower one's expectations as to what is realistically achievable (even when applying our OpenCV + Raspberry Pi optimizations).

An example of the operation is shown in this video, Raspberry Pi: Deep learning object detection with OpenCV (Part 1).

A different approach to object detection on the Raspberry Pi

In the above example, net.forward() was the blocking operation. One way of getting around this is to unblock the main thread of execution - thus allowing the while() loop to continue - by creating a separate process that is solely responsible for applying the deep learning object detector.

If the predictions are moved to a separate process then that will give the illusion of the Raspberry Pi object detector running faster than it actually is - when in reality the net.forward() computation still takes the same amount of time, i.e. a little over one second.

The disadvantage, of course, is that the output object detection predictions will lag behind what is currently being displayed on our screen. Fast-moving objects may be missed entirely, or at the very least, the object will be out of the frame before the detections are received from the neural network.

Create a file called pi_object_detection.py and enter the following code:

# import the necessary packages
from imutils.video import VideoStream
from imutils.video import FPS
from multiprocessing import Process
from multiprocessing import Queue
import numpy as np
import argparse
import imutils
import time
import cv2

def classify_frame(net, inputQueue, outputQueue):
    # keep looping
    while True:
        # check to see if there is a frame in our input queue
        if not inputQueue.empty():
            # grab the frame from the input queue, resize it, and
            # construct a blob from it
            frame = inputQueue.get()
            frame = cv2.resize(frame, (300, 300))
            blob = cv2.dnn.blobFromImage(frame, 0.007843,
                (300, 300), 127.5)

            # set the blob as input to our deep learning object
            # detector and obtain the detections
            net.setInput(blob)
            detections = net.forward()

            # write the detections to the output queue
            outputQueue.put(detections)

# construct the argument parse and parse the arguments
ap = argparse.ArgumentParser()
ap.add_argument("-p", "--prototxt", required=True,
    help="path to Caffe 'deploy' prototxt file")
ap.add_argument("-m", "--model", required=True,
    help="path to Caffe pre-trained model")
ap.add_argument("-c", "--confidence", type=float, default=0.2,
    help="minimum probability to filter weak detections")
args = vars(ap.parse_args())

# construct the argument parse and parse the arguments
ap = argparse.ArgumentParser()
ap.add_argument("-p", "--prototxt", required=True,
    help="path to Caffe 'deploy' prototxt file")
ap.add_argument("-m", "--model", required=True,
    help="path to Caffe pre-trained model")
ap.add_argument("-c", "--confidence", type=float, default=0.2,
    help="minimum probability to filter weak detections")
args = vars(ap.parse_args())

# initialize the input queue (frames), output queue (detections),
# and the list of actual detections returned by the child process
inputQueue = Queue(maxsize=1)
outputQueue = Queue(maxsize=1)
detections = None

# construct a child process *indepedent* from our main process of
# execution
print("[INFO] starting process...")
p = Process(target=classify_frame, args=(net, inputQueue,
    outputQueue,))
p.daemon = True
p.start()

# initialize the video stream, allow the cammera sensor to warmup,
# and initialize the FPS counter
print("[INFO] starting video stream...")
vs = VideoStream(src=0).start()
# vs = VideoStream(usePiCamera=True).start()
time.sleep(2.0)
fps = FPS().start()

# loop over the frames from the video stream
while True:
    # grab the frame from the threaded video stream, resize it, and
    # grab its dimensions
    frame = vs.read()
    frame = imutils.resize(frame, width=400)
    (fH, fW) = frame.shape[:2]

    # if the input queue *is* empty, give the current frame to
    # classify
    if inputQueue.empty():
        inputQueue.put(frame)

    # if the output queue *is not* empty, grab the detections
    if not outputQueue.empty():
        detections = outputQueue.get()

    # check to see if our detectios are not None (and if so, we'll
    # draw the detections on the frame)
    if detections is not None:
        # loop over the detections
        for i in np.arange(0, detections.shape[2]):
            # extract the confidence (i.e., probability) associated
            # with the prediction
            confidence = detections[0, 0, i, 2]

            # filter out weak detections by ensuring the `confidence`
            # is greater than the minimum confidence
            if confidence < args["confidence"]:
                continue

            # otherwise, extract the index of the class label from
            # the `detections`, then compute the (x, y)-coordinates
            # of the bounding box for the object
            idx = int(detections[0, 0, i, 1])
            dims = np.array([fW, fH, fW, fH])
            box = detections[0, 0, i, 3:7] * dims
            (startX, startY, endX, endY) = box.astype("int")

            # draw the prediction on the frame
            label = "{}: {:.2f}%".format(CLASSES[idx],
                confidence * 100)
            cv2.rectangle(frame, (startX, startY), (endX, endY),
                COLORS[idx], 2)
            y = startY - 15 if startY - 15 > 15 else startY + 15
            cv2.putText(frame, label, (startX, y),
                cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_SIMPLEX, 0.5, COLORS[idx], 2)

    # show the output frame
    cv2.imshow("Frame", frame)
    key = cv2.waitKey(1) & 0xFF

    # if the `q` key was pressed, break from the loop
    if key == ord("q"):
        break

    # update the FPS counter
    fps.update()

# stop the timer and display FPS information
fps.stop()
print("[INFO] elapsed time: {:.2f}".format(fps.elapsed()))
print("[INFO] approx. FPS: {:.2f}".format(fps.fps()))

# do a bit of cleanup
cv2.destroyAllWindows()
vs.stop()

Running this code with

$ python pi_object_detection.py \
    --prototxt MobileNetSSD_deploy.prototxt.txt \
    --model MobileNetSSD_deploy.caffemodel
[INFO] loading model...
[INFO] starting process...
[INFO] starting video stream...
[INFO] elapsed time: 48.55
[INFO] approx. FPS: 27.83

Note

This method differs from the previous method as real-time throughput is obtained by displaying each new input frame in real-time and then any previous detections are drawn on the current frame.

Once a new set of detections have been received then the new ones are drawn on the frame, ad infinitum, until the scripted is exited.

There is quite an amount lag exhibited, however, and it may be seen that objects will have clearly left the field of view, whilst the script still reports them as being present.

For this reason this approach should only be considered when:

  1. The objects are slow moving and approximations to the new location can use the previous detections.
  2. The display of the actual frames themselves, in real-time, is of paramount importance to the user.

An example of the operation is shown in this video, Raspberry Pi: Deep learning object detection with OpenCV (Part 2).

Summary

To quote the summary from the original article, Py Image Search.

In today’s blog post we examined using the Raspberry Pi for object detection using deep learning, OpenCV, and Python.

As our results demonstrated we were able to get up to 0.9 frames per second, which is not fast enough to constitute real-time detection. That said, given the limited processing power of the Pi, 0.9 frames per second is still reasonable for some applications.

We then wrapped up this blog post by examining an alternate method to deep learning object detection on the Raspberry Pi by using multiprocessing. Whether or not this second approach is suitable for you is again highly dependent on your application.

If your use case involves low traffic object detection where the objects are slow moving through the frame, then you can certainly consider using the Raspberry Pi for deep learning object detection. However, if you are developing an application that involves many objects that are fast moving, you should instead consider faster hardware.

-1

A good place to start is Py Image Search. This blog has a ton of useful tutorials for computer vision on a Raspberry Pi.

  • This is a bit of a link only answer – Greenonline Jul 16 '18 at 14:08
  • @Greenonline, sometimes it cannot be avoided and it does answer both questions .... (the questions are rather broad) – jsotola Jul 17 '18 at 6:46
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    @jsotola - The page could be easily summarised by including both sets of code and the summary, in the answer. – Greenonline Jul 17 '18 at 8:32
  • I really like that I'm getting downvoted for a link to the correct answer. Nobody else put anything of value to this answer. This is why I don't answer questions on Stack Overflow anymore. I'm going to bet this comment gets either removed or downvoted to hell, too. Because at this point you get more upvotes on Reddit than StackOverflow for the same question and answer. That's the world we live in. – Cody Snider Jul 17 '18 at 14:47
  • Easy answer... link rot... See this answer to Convincing wrongness of link only answers. I didn't down vote you BTW - but I can understand why you got a down vote. – Greenonline Jul 17 '18 at 16:03

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