I'd like to use my Raspberry Pi for programming, among others, Java. As an editor, I would like to use Android Studio.
Is there a kind of Android Studio to install on the Raspberry Pi?
This is not really feasible; although Studio (and the community version of IntelliJ, around which it is built) and the SDK are open source1, I do not think anyone would bother compiling it for ARM systems since these are generally small like the Raspberry Pi.
The download page states 3 GB of RAM as a minimum and recommends 8, which obviously rules out the Pi. Just loading a project in Studio here (on an x86-64 linux system) sucks ~1 1/4 GB immediately, and it is doubtless relying on shared libraries that are already loaded and part of the ~3.5 GB already occupied.
adb is available in Raspbian, as is gradle. With sufficient knowledge of the build system you probably could put a development environment together, but you could not use something as hefty as Studio.