I'm looking at a Raspberry Pi and I am a bit new to Serial Peripheral Interface. I see the Rasperry Pi has two SPI interfaces on the GPIO pins. Can one SPI interface be programmed to connect to multiple SPI devices such as multiple can bus controllers? Are there any tradeoffs if possible?
Yes. SPI is designed to support multiple devices. There is a per-device chip select.
Downside is that you are sharing a bus. This possibly complicates code (switching clock speeds) and may introduce lag (can't interact with device B, if device A transfer is still in progress). Some devices might not play well with others, but that would be an exception.