The pi has no analog audio, and only digital audio out. I have also seen at least one pi hat that can add analog audio, but it was quite expensive. Cheap USB sound cards are available (with wildly varying quality) and may be able to do this task. Most of them have TRS plugs with separate plugs for line in and speaker out rather than the TRRS plugs you ...
The Raspberrypi has NO microphone input (or ANY analog capabilities).
If you want to do this on a Pi you will need some kind of audio module. There are a number available (most costing more than a Pi).
While it would be possible, the Pi is a poor choice for such a project.
Check out the PulseAudio Troubleshooting page in Arch Wiki.
What helped me was switching to interrupt-based scheduling, by editing the following line in /etc/pulse/default.pa:
I added tsched=0 to it:
load-module module-udev-detect tsched=0
Interrupt-based scheduler can be further tweaked by editing /etc/pulse/daemon.conf. ...
Depending on what you are actually trying to do, you may not need an audio device. If you end up dumping the audio stream in a file and then run some calculation on it, you might as well use a data logger connected to a microphone. Commercial data loggers can easily reach 1MHz sampling rate and typically have more than two channels. Such devices also start ...