Removing your dbus would have removed most of your installed packages, so I think you would be running a very bare system. I would re-burn an image, but I guess you could try an install a desktop xserver back on it, most likely have to many errors though.
Install desktop on Raspberry Pi
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get install --no-...
It seems that other network managing packages prevent Network Manager to access wireless.
For me the issue resolved by removing dhcpcd5 and openresolve packages :
sudo apt-get remove --purge dhcpcd5 openresolve
This is commonly because the pi user's privileges are different on the full version than they are on a Lite installation.
For example, user pi on a Desktop RPi system is able to start and control the default Bluetooth controller using bluetoothctl, but not on a RPi Lite system.
For example, are you seeing no controller if you use bluetoothctl?
Some useful commands to get more debug information from the system are:
Have the bluetoothctl tool running in a different terminal when you are running your commands and it may give you more information
More detailed bluetooth log information can be found with sudo btmon -t |& tee ~/btmon.log
DBus debug information is available with dbus-monitor --system